Components of the DBMS environment

We can identify five major components in the DBMS environment: hardware, software, data, procedures, and people:
(1) Hardware: The computer system(s) that the DBMS and the application programs run on. This can range from a single PC, to a single mainframe, to a network of computers.
(2) Software: The DBMS software and the application programs, together with the operating system, including network software if the DBMS is being used over a network.
(3) Data: The data acts as a bridge between the hardware and software components and the human components. As we’ve already said, the database contains both the operational data and the meta-data (the ‘data about data’).
(4) Procedures: The instructions and rules that govern the design and use of the database. This may include instructions on how to log on to the DBMS, make backup copies of the database, and how to handle hardware or software failures.
(5) People :This includes the database designers, database administrators (DBAs), application programmers, and the end-users.